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High-performance polymer tandem solar cells employing a new n-type conjugated polymer as an interconnecting layer

摘要:Organic solar cells (OSCs) offers several distinct advantages such as light weight, good mechanical fl exibility, and low costs over other photovoltaic technologies, making them a potential future renewable energy source.  While over the past decade the performance of OSCs continued to improve with power conversion effi ciency (PCE) now reaching over 10% for singlejunction cells,  further breakthrough on the PCE is required in order to achieve broader applications. To achieve the performance goal, advances in the development of more effi cient light-harvesting and interface materials are required. [ 6–9 ] In addition, tandem confi guration is another promising approach to improve the OSC performance by tackling the main losses in single-junction OSCs, such as narrow absorption window and thermalization losses...



Development of a spectroscopic Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer for nanostructure metrology

摘要:In this paper, we describe the development of a spectroscopic Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer (MMIE), which combines the great power of Mueller matrix ellipsometry with the high spatial resolution of optical microscopy. A dual rotating-compensator configuration is adopted to collect the full 4 × 4 imaging Mueller matrix in a single measurement. The light wavelengths are scanned in the range of 400–700 nm by a monochromator. The instrument has measurement accuracy and precision better than 0.01 for all the Mueller matrix elements in both the whole image and the whole spectral range. The instrument was then applied for the measurement of nanostructures combined with an inverse diffraction problem solving technique. The experiment performed on a photoresist grating sample has demonstrated the great potential of MMIE for accurate grating reconstruction from spectral data collected by a single pixel of the camera and for efficient quantification of geometrical profile of the grating structure over a large area with pixel resolution. It is expected that MMIE will be a powerful tool for nanostructure metrology in future high-volume nanomanufacturing. Published by AIP Publishing...



Development of a broadband Mueller matrix ellipsometer as a powerful tool for nanostructure metrology

摘要:Ellipsometric scatterometry has gained wide industrial applications in semiconductor manufacturing after ten years of development. Among the various types of ellipsometers, Mueller matrix ellipsometer (MME) can provide all 16 elements of the 4 by 4 Mueller matrix, and consequently, MME-based scatterometry can acquire much more useful information about the sample and thereby can achieve better measurement sensitivity and accuracy. In this paper, the basic principles and instrumentation of MME are presented, and the data analysis in MME-based nanostructure metrology is revisited from the viewpoint of computational metrology. It is pointed out that MME-based nanometrology is essentially a computational metrology technique by modeling a complicated forward process followed by solving a nonlinear inverse problem. Several case studies are finally provided to demonstrate the potential of MME in nanostructure metrology...

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